Ontario Human Rights Code
Statutes of Ontario 1990, Chapter H.19

PART II -- INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION


Definitions
10. (1) In Part I and in this Part,
(a) "age"
means an age that is eighteen years or more, except in subsection 5(1) where "age" means an age that is eighteen years or more and less than sixty-five years; ("âge")
(b) "because of handicap"
means for the reason that the person has or has had, or is believed to have or have had,
(i) any degree of physical disability, infirmity, malformation or disfigurement that is caused by bodily injury, birth defect or illness and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, including diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, any degree of paralysis, amputation, lack of physical coordination, blindness or visual impediment, deafness or hearing impediment, muteness or speech impediment, or physical reliance on a dog guide or on a wheelchair or other remedial appliance or device,
(ii) a condition of mental retardation or impairment,
(iii) a learning disability, or a dysfunction in one or more of the processes involved in understanding or using symbols or spoken language,
(iv) a mental disorder, or
(v) an injury or disability for which benefits were claimed or received under the Workers' Compensation Act; R.S.O. 1980, C.539
(c) "equal"
means subject to all requirements, qualifications and considerations that are not a prohibited ground of discrimination;
(d) "family status"
means the status of being in a parent and child relationship;
(e) "group insurance"
means insurance whereby the lives or well-being or the lives and well-being of a number of persons are insured severally under a single contract between an insurer and an association or an employer or other person; ("assurance-groupe")
(f) "harassment"
means engaging in a course of vexatious comment or conduct that is known or ought reasonably to be known to be unwelcome; ("harcŐlement")
(g) "marital status"
means the status of being married, single, widowed, divorced or separated and includes the status of living with a person of the opposite sex in a conjugal relationship outside marriage; ("état matrimonial")
(h) "record of offences"
means a conviction for,
(i) an offence in respect of which a pardon has been granted under the Criminal Records Act (Canada) and has not been revoked, R.S.C. 1970, c.12 (1st Supp.) or
(ii) an offence in respect of any provincial enactment;
(i) "services"
does not include a levy, fee, tax or periodic payment imposed by law;
(j) "spouse"
means the person to whom a person of the opposite sex is married or with whom the person is living in a conjugal relationship outside marriage. ("conjoint") [1981, c.53, s.9; 1984, c.58, s.39.]
Pregnancy
(2) The right to equal treatment without discrimination because of sex includes the right to equal treatment without discrimination because a woman is or may become pregnant. [1986, c.64, s.18(7).]

Constructive discrimination
11.(1) A right of a person under Part I is infringed where a requirement, qualification or factor exists that is not discrimination on a prohibited ground but that results in the exclusion, restriction or preference of a group of persons who are identified by a prohibited ground of discrimination and of whom the person is a member, except where,
(a) the requirement, qualification or factor is reasonable and bona fide in the circumstances; or
(b) it is declared in this Act, other than in section 16, that to discriminate because of such ground is not an infringement of a right.
Idem
(2) The Commission, a board of inquiry or a court shall not find that a requirement, qualification or factor is reasonable and bona fide in the circumstances unless it is satisfied that the needs of the group of which the person is a member cannot be accommodated without undue hardship on the person responsible for accommodating those needs, considering the cost, outside sources of funding, if any, and health and safety requirements, if any.
Idem
(3) The Commission, a board of inquiry or a court shall consider any standards prescribed by the regulations for assessing what is undue hardship. [1986, c.64, s.18(8).]

Discrimination because of association
12. A right under Part I is infringed where the discrimination is because of relationship, association or dealings with a person or persons identified by a prohibited ground of discrimination. [1981, c.53, s.11.]

Announced intention to discriminate
13. (1) A right under Part I is infringed by a person who publishes or displays before the public or causes the publication or display before the public of any notice, sign, symbol, emblem, or other similar representation that indicates the intention of the person to infringe a right under Part I or that is intended by the person to incite the infringement of a right under Part I.
Opinion
(2) Subsection (1) shall not interfere with freedom of expression of opinion. [1981, c.53, s.12.]

Special programs
14.(1) A right under Part I is not infringed by the implementation of a special program designed to relieve hardship or economic disadvantage or to assist disadvantaged persons or groups to achieve or attempt to achieve equal opportunity or that is likely to contribute to the elimination of the infringement of rights under Part I.
Review by Commission
(2) The Commission may,
(a) upon its own initiative;
(b) upon application by a person seeking to implement a special program under the protection of subsection (1); or
(c) upon a complaint in respect of which the protection of subsection (1) is claimed,
inquire into the special program and, in the discretion of the Commission, may by order declare,
(d) that the special program, as defined in the order, does not satisfy the requirements of subsection (1); or
(e) that the special program as defined in the order, with such modifications, if any, as the Commission considers advisable, satisfies the requirements of subsection (1).
Reconsideration
(3) A person aggrieved by the making of an order under subsection (2) may request the Commission to reconsider its order and section 37, with necessary modifications, applies.
Effect of order
(4) Subsection (1) does not apply to a special program where an order is made under clause (2)(d) or where an order is made under clause (2)(e) with modifications of the special program that are not implemented.
Subs. (2) does not apply to Crown
(5) Subsection (2) does not apply to a special program implemented by the Crown or an agency of the Crown. [1981, c.53, s.13.]

Age sixty-five or over
15. A right under Part I to non-discrimination because of age is not infringed where an age of sixty-five years or over is a requirement, qualification or consideration for preferential treatment. [1981, c.53, s.14.]

Canadian Citizenship
16. (1) A right under Part I to non-discrimination because of citizenship is not infringed where Canadian citizenship is a requirement, qualification or consideration imposed or authorized by law.
Idem
(2) A right under Part I to non-discrimination because of citizenship is not infringed where Canadian citizenship or lawful admission to Canada for permanent residence is a requirement, qualification or consideration adopted for the purpose of fostering and developing participation in cultural, educational, trade union or athletic activities by Canadian citizens or persons lawfully admitted to Canada for permanent residence.
Idem
(3) A right under Part I to non-discrimination because of citizenship is not infringed where Canadian citizenship or domicile in Canada with the intention to obtain Canadian citizenship is a requirement, qualification or consideration adopted by an organization or enterprise for the holder of chief or senior executive positions. [1981, c.53, s.15.]

Handicap
17. (1) A right of a person under this Act is not infringed for the reason only that the person is incapable of performing or fulfilling the essential duties or requirements attending the exercise of the right because of handicap. [1986, c.64, s.18(9).]
Accommodation & undue hardship
(1a) The Commission, a board of inquiry or a court shall not find a person incapable unless it is satisfied that the needs of the person cannot be accommodated without undue hardship on the person responsible for accommodating those needs, considering the cost, outside sources of funding, if any, and health and safety requirements, if any.
Idem
(1b) The Commission, a board of inquiry or a court shall consider any standards prescribed by the regulations for assessing what is undue hardship. [1986, c.64, s.18(10).]
Powers of Commission
(2) Where, after the investigation of a complaint, the Commission determines that the evidence does not warrant the appointment of a board of inquiry because of the application of subsection (1), the Commission may nevertheless use its best endeavours to effect a settlement as to the duties or requirements. [1981, c.53, s.16(2); 1986, c.64, s.18(11).]

Special interest organizations
18. The rights under Part I to equal treatment with respect to services and facilities, with or without accommodation, is not infringed where membership or participation in a religious, philanthropic, educational, fraternal or social institution or organization that is primarily engaged in serving the interests of persons identified by a prohibited ground of discrimination is restricted to persons who are similarly identified. [1981, c.53, s.17.]

Separate school rights preserved 1867, c.3
19.(1) This Act shall not be construed to adversely affect any right or privilege respecting separate schools enjoyed by separate school boards or their supporters under The British North America Act, 1867 and the Education Act. R.S.O. 1980, c.129
Duties of teachers
(2) This Act does not apply to affect the application of the Education Act with respect to the duties of teachers. [1981, c.53, s.18.]

Restriction of facilities by sex
20. (1) The right under section 1 to equal treatment with respect to services and facilities without discrimination because of sex is not infringed where the use of the services or facilities is restricted to persons of the same sex on the ground of public decency. [1981, c.53, s.19(1).]
Minimum drinking age 1990, c. 15
(2) The right under section 1 to equal treatment with respect to services, goods and facilities without discrimination because of age is not infringed by the provisions of the Liquor Licence Act, 1990 and the regulations under it relating to providing for and enforcing a minimum drinking age of nineteen years. [1990, c.15, s.65.]
Recreational clubs
(3) The right under section 1 to equal treatment with respect to services and facilities is not infringed where a recreational club restricts or qualifies access to its services or facilities or gives preferences with respect to membership dues and other fees because of age, sex, marital status or family status. [1981, c.53, s.19(3).]

Shared accommodation
21. (1) The right under section 2 to equal treatment with respect to the occupancy of residential accommodation without discrimination is not infringed by discrimination where the residential accommodation is in a dwelling in which the owner or his or her family reside if the occupant or occupants of the residential accommodation are required to share a bathroom or kitchen facility with the owner or family of the owner.
Restrictions on accommodation, sex
(2) The right under section 2 to equal treatment with respect to the occupancy of residential accommodation without discrimination because of sex is not infringed by discrimination on that ground where the occupancy of all the residential accommodation in the building, other than the accommodation, if any, of the owner or family of the owner, is restricted to persons who are of the same sex. [1981, c.53, s.20(1,2).]
(3) REPEALED: [1986, c.64, s.18(13).]
(4) REPEALED: [1986, c.64, s.18(14).]

Restrictions for insurance contracts, etc.
22. The right under sections 1 and 3 to equal treatment with respect to services and to contract on equal terms, without discrimination because of age, sex, marital status, family status or handicap, is not infringed where a contract of automobile, life, accident or sickness or disability insurance or a contract of group insurance between an insurer and an association or person other than an employer, or a life annuity, differentiates or makes a distinction, exclusion or preference on reasonable and bona fide grounds because of age, sex, marital status, family status or handicap. [1981, c.53, s.21.]

Discriminatory employment advertising
23. (1) The right under section 5 to equal treatment with respect to employment is infringed where an invitation to apply for employment or an advertisement in connection with employment is published or displayed that directly or indirectly classifies or indicates qualifications by a prohibited ground of discrimination.
Application for employment
(2) The right under section 5 to equal treatment with respect to employment is infringed where a form of application for employment is used or a written or oral inquiry is made of an applicant that directly or indirectly classifies or indicates qualifications by a prohibited ground of discrimination.
Questions at interview
(3) Nothing in subsection (2) precludes the asking of questions at a personal employment interview concerning a prohibited ground of discrimination where discrimination on such ground is permitted under this Act.
Employment agencies
(4) The right under section 5 to equal treatment with respect to employment is infringed where an employment agency discriminates against a person because of a prohibited ground of discrimination in receiving, classifying, disposing of or otherwise acting upon applications for its services or in referring an applicant or applicants to an employer or agent of an employer. [1981, c.53, s.22.]

Special employment
24. (1) The right under section 5 to equal treatment with respect to employment is not infringed where,
(a) a religious, philanthropic, educational, fraternal or social institution or organization that is primarily engaged in serving the interests of persons identified by their race, ancestry, place of origin, colour, ethnic origin, creed, sex, age, marital status or handicap employs only, or gives preference in employment to, persons similarly identified if the qualification is a reasonable and bona fide qualification because of the nature of the employment;
(b) o the discrimination in employment is for reasons of age, sex, record of offences or marital status if the age, sex, record of offences or marital status of the applicant is a reasonable and bona fide qualification because of the nature of the employment;
(c) an individual person refuses to employ another for reasons of any prohibited ground of discrimination in section 4, where the primary duty of the employment is attending to the medical or personal needs of the person or of an ill child or an aged, infirm or ill spouse or other relative of the person; or
(d) an employer grants or withholds employment or advancement in employment to a person who is the spouse, child or parent of the employer or an employee. [1981, c.53, s.23.]
Accommodation & undue hardship
(2) The Commission, a board of inquiry or a court shall not find that a qualification under clause (1)(b) is reasonable and bona fide unless it is satisfied that the circumstances of the person cannot be accommodated without undue hardship on the person responsible for accommodating those circumstances considering the cost, outside sources of funding, if any, and health and safety requirements, if any.
Idem
(3) The Commission, a board of inquiry or a court shall consider any standards prescribed by the regulations for assessing what is undue hardship. [1986, c.64, s.18(15).]

Employment conditional on membership in pension plan
25. (1) The right under section 5 to equal treatment with respect to employment is infringed where employment is denied or made conditional because a term or condition of employment requires enrolment in an employee benefit, pension or superannuation plan or fund or a contract of group insurance between an insurer and an employer, that makes a distinction, preference or exclusion on a prohibited ground of discrimination.
Pension or disability plan under R.S.O. 1980, c.137
(2) The right under section 5 to equal treatment with respect to employment without discrimination because of age, sex, marital status or family status is not infringed by an employee superannuation or pension plan or fund or a contract of group insurance between an insurer and an employer that complies with the Employment Standards Act and the regulations thereunder.
Employee disability and pension plans: handicap
(3) The right under section 5 to equal treatment with respect to employment without discrimination because of handicap is not infringed,
(a) where a reasonable and bona fide distinction, exclusion or preference is made in an employee disability or life insurance plan or benefit because of a pre-existing handicap that substantially increases the risk;
(b) where a reasonable and bona fide distinction, exclusion or preference is made on the ground of a pre-existing handicap in respect of an employee-pay-all or participant-pay-all benefit in an employee benefit, pension or superannuation plan or fund or a contract of group insurance between an insurer and an employer or in respect of a plan, fund or policy that is offered by an employer to his employees if they are fewer than twenty-five in number.
Compensation
(4) An employer shall pay to an employee who is excluded because of a handicap from an employee benefit, pension or superannuation plan or fund or a contract of group insurance between an insurer and the employer compensation equivalent to the contribution that the employer would make thereto on behalf of an employee who does not have a handicap. [1981, c.53, s.24.]

Discrimination in employment under government contracts
26. (1) It shall be deemed to be a condition of every contract entered into by or on behalf of the Crown or any agency thereof and of every subcontract entered into in the performance thereof that no right under section 5 will be infringed in the course of performing the contract.
Idem: government grants and loans
(2) It shall be deemed to be a condition of every grant, contribution, loan or guarantee made by or on behalf of the Crown or any agency thereof that no right under section 5 will be infringed in the course of carrying out the purposes for which the grant, contribution, loan or guarantee was made.
Sanction
(3) Where an infringement of a right under section 5 is found by a board of inquiry upon a complaint and constitutes a breach of a condition under this section, the breach of condition is sufficient grounds for cancellation of the contract, grant, contribution, loan or guarantee and refusal to enter into any further contract with or make any further grant, contribution, loan or guarantee to the same person. [1981, c.53, s.25.]

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