R. v. Butler, [1992] 1 S.C.R. 452, 89 D.L.R. (4th) 449-499

Regina v. Butler

Cases Cited
Statutes and Regulations Cited
Authors Cited

Court Decision. (Appeal allowed; new trial ordered.)

Sopinka J. (Lamer C.J. and La Forest, Cory, McLachlin, Stevenson and Iacobucci JJ. concurring)

1. Facts and proceedings
Court of Queen's Bench (1989), 50 C.C.C. (3d) 97
Manitoba Court of Appeal (1990), 60 C.C.C. (3d) 219
... Huband J.A. (O'Sullivan and Lyon JJ.A. concurring)
... Twaddle J.A., dissenting
... Helper J.A., dissenting
2. Relevant legislation
Criminal Code, s.163, R.S.C., 1985, c.C-46
3. Issues
4. Analysis
A. Legislative history
B. Judicial interpretation of s.163(8)
(a) Section 163(8) to be exclusive test
(b) Tests of "undue exploitation of sex"
(i) "Community standard of tolerance" test
(ii) "Degradation or dehumanization" test
(iii) "Internal necessities test" or "artistic defence"
(iv) The relationship of the tests to each other
C. Does s.163 violate s.2(b) of the Charter?
D. Is s.163 justified under s.1 of the Charter?
(a) Is s.163 a limit prescribed by law?
(b) Objective
(c) Proportionality
(i) General
(ii) Rational connection
(iii) Minimal impairment
(iv) Balance between effects of limiting measures and legislative objective
5. Conclusion
Gonthier J. (L'Heureux-Dubé J. concurring)
The substance of s.163 of the Code
A representation and its content
Prohibition and regulation
The three-category classification
Materials of the third category
Tolerance and harm
The constitutional validity of s.163 of the Code