Canadian Human Rights Act
CHAPTER H-6

PART III -- DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES AND GENERAL PROVISIONS


Definition of "discriminatory practice"
39. For the purposes of this Part, a "discriminatory practice" means any practice that is a discriminatory practice within the meaning of sections 5 to 14. [1976-77, c.33, s.31; 1980-81-82-83, c.143, s.14.]

Complaints
40. (1) Subject to subsections (5) and (7), any individual or group of individuals having reasonable grounds for believing that a person is engaging or has engaged in a discriminatory practice may file with the Commission a complaint in a form acceptable to the Commission.
Consent of victim
(2) If a complaint is made by someone other than the individual who is alleged to be the victim of the discriminatory practice to which the complaint relates, the Commission may refuse to deal with the complaint unless the alleged victim consents thereto.
Investigation commenced by Commission
(3) Where the Commission has reasonable grounds for believing that a person is engaging or has engaged in a discriminatory practice, the Commission may initiate a complaint.
Complaints may be dealt with together
(4) Where complaints are filed jointly or separately by more than one individual or group alleging that a particular person is engaging or has engaged in a discriminatory practice or a series of similar discriminatory practices and the Commission is satisfied that the complaints involve substantially the same issues of fact and law, it may deal with those complaints together under this Part and may request the President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel to appoint a single Human Rights Tribunal pursuant to section 49 to inquire into those complaints.
No complaints to be considered in certain cases
(5) No complaint in relation to a discriminatory practice may be dealt with by the Commission under this Part unless the act or omission that constitutes the practice
(a) occurred in Canada and the victim of the practice was at the time of the act or omission either lawfully present in Canada or, if temporarily absent from Canada, entitled to return to Canada;
(b) occurred in Canada and was a discriminatory practice within the meaning of section 8, 10, 12 or 13 in respect of which no particular individual is identifiable as the victim; or
(c) occurred outside Canada and the victim of the practice was at the time of the act or omission a Canadian citizen or an individual lawfully admitted to Canada for permanent residence.
Determination of status
(6) Where a question arises under subsection (5) as to the status of an individual in relation to a complaint, the Commission shall refer the question of status to the appropriate Minister and shall not proceed with the complaint unless the question of status is resolved thereby in favour of the complainant.
No complaints to be dealt with in certain cases
(7) No complaint may be dealt with by the Commission pursuant to subsection (1) that relates to the terms and conditions of a superannuation or pension fund or plan, if the relief sought would require action to be taken that would deprive any contributor to, participant in or member of, the fund or plan of any rights acquired under the fund or plan before March 1, 1978 or of any pension or other benefits accrued under the fund or plan to that date, including
(a) any rights and benefits based on a particular age of retirement; and
(b) any accrued survivor's benefits. [R.S., 1985, c.H-6, s.40; R.S., 1985, c.31 (1st Supp.), s.62.]

Commission to deal with complaint
41. Subject to section 40, the Commission shall deal with any complaint filed with it unless in respect of that complaint it appears to the Commission that
(a) the alleged victim of the discriminatory practice to which the complaint relates ought to exhaust grievance or review procedures otherwise reasonably available;
(b) the complaint is one that could more appropriately be dealt with, initially or completely, according to a procedure provided for under an Act of Parliament other than this Act;
(c) the complaint is beyond the jurisdiction of the Commission;
(d) the complaint is trivial, frivolous, vexatious or made in bad faith; or
(e) the complaint is based on acts or omissions the last of which occurred more than one year, or such longer period of time as the Commission considers appropriate in the circumstances, before receipt of the complaint. [1976-77, c.33, s.33.]

Notice
42. (1) Subject to subsection (2), when the Commission decides not to deal with a complaint, it shall send a written notice of its decision to the complainant setting out the reason for its decision.
Attributing fault for delay
(2) Before deciding that a complaint will not be dealt with because a procedure referred to in paragraph 41(a) has not been exhausted, the Commission shall satisfy itself that the failure to exhaust the procedure was attributable to the complainant and not to another. [1976-77, c.33, s.34.]

Investigation

Designation of investigator
43. (1) The Commission may designate a person, in this Part referred to as an "investigator", to investigate a complaint.
Manner of investigation
(2) An investigator shall investigate a complaint in a manner authorized by regulations made pursuant to subsection (4).
Power to enter
(2.1) Subject to such limitations as the Governor in Council may prescribe in the interests of national defence or security, an investigator with a warrant issued under subsection (2.2) may, at any reasonable time, enter and search any premises in order to carry out such inquiries as are reasonably necessary for the investigation of a complaint.
Authority to issue warrant
(2.2) Where on ex parte application a judge of the Federal Court is satisfied by information on oath that there are reasonable grounds to believe that there is in any premises any evidence relevant to the investigation of a complaint, the judge may issue a warrant under the judge's hand authorizing the investigator named therein to enter and search those premises for any such evidence subject to such conditions as may be specified in the warrant.
Use of force
(2.3) In executing a warrant issued under subsection (2.2), the investigator named therein shall not use force unless the investigator is accompanied by a peace officer and the use of force has been specifically authorized in the warrant.
Production of books
(2.4) An investigator may require any individual found in any premises entered pursuant to this section to produce for inspection or for the purpose of obtaining copies thereof or extracts therefrom any books or other documents containing any matter relevant to the investigation being conducted by the investigator.
Obstruction
(3) No person shall obstruct an investigator in the investigation of a complaint.
Regulations
(4) The Governor in Council may make regulations
(a) prescribing procedures to be followed by investigators;
(b) authorizing the manner in which complaints are to be investigated pursuant to this Part; and
(c) prescribing limitations for the purpose of subsection (2.1). [R.S., 1985, c.H-6, s.43; R.S., 1985, c.31 (1st Supp.), s.63.]

Report
44. (1) An investigator shall, as soon as possible after the conclusion of an investigation, submit to the Commission a report of the findings of the investigation.
Action on receipt of report
(2) If, on receipt of a report referred to in subsection (1), the Commission is satisfied
(a) that the complainant ought to exhaust grievance or review procedures otherwise reasonably available, or
(b) that the complaint could more appropriately be dealt with, initially or completely, by means of a procedure provided for under an Act of Parliament other than this Act, it shall refer the complainant to the appropriate authority.
Idem
(3) On receipt of a report referred to in subsection (1), the Commission
(a) may request the President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel to appoint a Human Rights Tribunal in accordance with section 49 to inquire into the complaint to which the report relates if the Commission is satisfied
(i) that, having regard to all the circumstances of the complaint, an inquiry into the complaint is warranted, and
(ii) that the complaint to which the report relates should not be referred pursuant to subsection (2) or dismissed on any ground mentioned in paragraphs 41(c) to (e); or
(b) shall dismiss the complaint to which the report relates if it is satisfied
(i) that, having regard to all the circumstances of the complaint, an inquiry into the complaint is not warranted, or
(ii) that the complaint should be dismissed on any ground mentioned in paragraphs 41(c) to (e).
Notice
(4) After receipt of a report referred to in subsection (1), the Commission
(a) shall notify in writing the complainant and the person against whom the complaint was made of its action under subsection (2) or (3); and
(b) may, in such manner as it sees fit, notify any other person whom it considers necessary to notify of its action under subsection (2) or (3). [R.S., 1985, c.H-6, s.44; R.S., 1985, c.31 (1st Supp.), s.64.]

Definition of "Review Committee"
45. (1) In this section and section 46, "Review Committee" has the meaning assigned to that expression by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act.
Complaint involving security considerations
(2) When, at any stage after the filing of a complaint and before the commencement of a hearing before a Human Rights Tribunal in respect thereof, the Commission receives written notice from a minister of the Crown that the practice to which the complaint relates was based on considerations relating to the security of Canada, the Commission may
(a) dismiss the complaint; or
(b) refer the matter to the Review Committee.
Notice
(3) After receipt of a notice mentioned in subsection (2), the Commission
(a) shall notify in writing the complainant and the person against whom the complaint was made of its action under paragraph (2)(a) or (b); and
(b) may, in such manner as it sees fit, notify any other person whom it considers necessary to notify of its action under paragraph (2)(a) or (b).
Stay of procedures
(4) Where the Commission has referred the matter to the Review Committee pursuant to paragraph (2)(b), it shall not deal with the complaint until the Review Committee has, pursuant to subsection 46(1), provided it with a report in relation to the matter.
Application of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act
(5) Where a matter is referred to the Review Committee pursuant to paragraph (2)(b), subsections 39(2) and (3) and sections 43, 44 and 47 to 51 of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act apply, with such modifications as the circumstances require, to the matter as if the referral were a complaint made pursuant to section 42 of that Act except that a reference in any of those provisions to "deputy head" shall be read as a reference to the minister referred to in subsection (2).
Statement to be sent to person affected
(6) The Review Committee shall, as soon as practicable after a matter in relation to a complaint is referred to it pursuant to paragraph (2)(b), send to the complainant a statement summarizing such information available to it as will enable the complainant to be as fully informed as possible of the circumstances giving rise to the referral. [1984, c.21, s.73.]

Report
46. (1) On completion of its investigation under section 45, the Review Committee shall, not later than forty-five days after the matter is referred to it pursuant to paragraph 45(2)(b), provide the Commission, the minister referred to in subsection 45(2) and the complainant with a report containing the findings of the Committee.
Action on receipt of report
(2) After considering a report provided pursuant to subsection (1), the Commission
(a) may dismiss the complaint or, where it does not do so, shall proceed to deal with the complaint pursuant to this Part; and
(b) shall notify, in writing, the complainant and the person against whom the complaint was made of its action under paragraph (a) and may, in such manner as it sees fit, notify any other person whom it considers necessary to notify of that action. [1984, c.21, s.73.]

Conciliator

Appointment of conciliator
47. (1) Subject to subsection (2), the Commission may, on the filing of a complaint, or if the complaint has not been
(a) settled in the course of investigation by an investigator,
(b) referred or dismissed under subsection 44(2) or (3) or paragraph 45(2)(a) or 46(2)(a), or
(c) settled after receipt by the parties of the notice referred to in subsection 44(4), appoint a person, in this Part referred to as a "conciliator", for the purpose of attempting to bring about a settlement of the complaint.
Eligibility>
(2) A person is not eligible to act as a conciliator in respect of a complaint if that person has already acted as an investigator in respect of that complaint.
Confidentiality
(3) Any information received by a conciliator in the course of attempting to reach a settlement of a complaint is confidential and may not be disclosed except with the consent of the person who gave the information. [1976-77, c.33, s.37; 1984, c.21, s.74.]

Settlement

Referral of a settlement to Commission
48. (1) When, at any stage after the filing of a complaint and before the commencement of a hearing before a Human Rights Tribunal in respect thereof, a settlement is agreed on by the parties, the terms of the settlement shall be referred to the Commission for approval or rejection.
Certificate
(2) If the Commission approves or rejects the terms of a settlement referred to in subsection (1), it shall so certify and notify the parties. [1976-77, c.33, s.38.]

Human Rights Tribunal Panel

Human Rights Tribunal Panel
48.1 There is hereby established a panel to be known as the Human Rights Tribunal Panel consisting of a President and such other members as may be appointed by the Governor in Council. [R.S., 1985, c.31 (1st Supp.), s.65.]

Term of office
48.2 The President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel shall be appointed to hold office during good behaviour for a term of three years and each of the other members of the Panel shall be appointed to be a member of the Panel during good behaviour for a term not exceeding five years, but may be removed by the Governor in Council for cause. [R.S., 1985, c.31 (1st Supp.), s.65.]

Absence or incapacity
48.3 In the event of the absence or incapacity of the President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel, or if there is no President, the Governor in Council may authorize a member of the Panel to act as President and a member so authorized, while so acting, has all the powers and may perform all the duties of the President. [R.S., 1985, c.31 (1st Supp.), s.65.]

Re-appointment
48.4 A President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel as well as any member of the Panel whose term has expired is eligible for re- appointment in the same or any other capacity. R.S., 1985, c.31 (1st Supp.), s.65.]

Remuneration of President
48.5 The President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel shall be paid remuneration and expenses for the performance of duties as President at the same rate as is prescribed by by-law of the Commission for a member of a Tribunal acting in the capacity of a Chairman thereof. [R.S., 1985, c.31 (1st Supp.), s.65.]

Human Rights Tribunal

Human Rights Tribunal
49. (1) The Commission may, at any stage after the filing of a complaint, request the President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel to appoint a Human Rights Tribunal, in this Part referred to as a "Tribunal", to inquire into the complaint if the Commission is satisfied that, having regard to all the circumstances of the complaint, an inquiry into the complaint is warranted.
President to appoint Tribunal
(1.1) On receipt of a request under subsection (1), the President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel shall appoint a Tribunal to inquire into the complaint to which the request relates.
Membership
(2) A Tribunal may not be composed of more than three members.
Eligibility
(3) No member, officer or employee of the Commission, and no individual who has acted as investigator or conciliator in respect of the complaint in relation to which a Tribunal is appointed, is eligible to be appointed to the Tribunal.
Remuneration
(4) A member of a Tribunal is entitled to be paid such remuneration and expenses for the performance of duties as a member of the Tribunal as may be prescribed by by-law of the Commission.
Selection from Panel
(5) Subject to subsection (5.1), in selecting any individual or individuals to be appointed as a Tribunal, the President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel shall select from among the members of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel.
President may appoint himself
(5.1) The President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel may sit as a Tribunal or as a member of a Tribunal.
Chairman
(6) Subject to subsection (7), where a Tribunal consists of more than one member, the President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel shall designate one of the members to be the Chairman of the Tribunal.
Idem
(7) Where the President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel is a member of a Tribunal consisting of more than one member, the President shall be Chairman of the Tribunal. [R.S., 1985, c.H-6, s.49; R.S., 1985, c.31 (1st Supp.), s.66.]

Duties
50. (1) A Tribunal shall, after due notice to the Commission, the complainant, the person against whom the complaint was made and, at the discretion of the Tribunal, any other interested party, inquire into the complaint in respect of which it was appointed and shall give all parties to whom notice has been given a full and ample opportunity, in person or through counsel, to appear before the Tribunal, present evidence and make representations to it.
Powers
(2) In relation to a hearing under this Part, a Tribunal may
(a) in the same manner and to the same extent as a superior court of record, summon and enforce the attendance of witnesses and compel them to give oral or written evidence on oath and to produce such documents and things as the Tribunal deems requisite to the full hearing and consideration of the complaint;
(b) administer oaths; and
(c) receive and accept such evidence and other information, whether on oath or by affidavit or otherwise, as the Tribunal sees fit, whether or not that evidence or information is or would be admissible in a court of law.
Limitation in relation to evidence
(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (2)(c), a tribunal may not admit or accept as evidence anything that would be inadmissible in a court by reason of any privilege under the law of evidence.
Conciliator not competent or compellable
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (2)(a), a conciliator appointed to settle a complaint is not a competent or compellable witness at a hearing of a Tribunal appointed to inquire into the complaint.
Witness fees
(5) Any person summoned to attend a hearing pursuant to this section is entitled in the discretion of the Tribunal to receive the like fees and allowances for so doing as if summoned to attend before the Federal Court. [1976-77, c.33, s.40.]

Duty of Commission on appearing
51. The Commission, in appearing before a Tribunal, presenting evidence and making representations to it, shall adopt such position as, in its opinion, is in the public interest having regard to the nature of the complaint being inquired into. [1976-77, c.33, s.40.]

Hearing in public
52. A hearing of a Tribunal shall be public, but a Tribunal may exclude members of the public during the whole or any part of a hearing if it considers that exclusion to be in the public interest. [1976-77, c.33, s.40.]

Complaint dismissed
53. (1) If, at the conclusion of its inquiry, a Tribunal finds that the complaint to which the inquiry relates is not substantiated, it shall dismiss the complaint.
Order
(2) If, at the conclusion of its inquiry, a Tribunal finds that the complaint to which the inquiry relates is substantiated, it may, subject to subsection (4) and section 54, make an order against the person found to be engaging or to have engaged in the discriminatory practice and include in that order any of the following terms that it considers appropriate:
(a) that the person cease the discriminatory practice and, in order to prevent the same or a similar practice from occurring in the future, take measures, including
(i) adoption of a special program, plan or arrangement referred to in subsection 16(1), or
(ii) the making of an application for approval and the implementing of a plan pursuant to section 17, in consultation with the Commission on the general purposes of those measures;
(b) that the person make available to the victim of the discriminatory practice, on the first reasonable occasion, such rights, opportunities or privileges as, in the opinion of the Tribunal, are being or were denied the victim as a result of the practice;
(c) that the person compensate the victim, as the Tribunal may consider proper, for any or all of the wages that the victim was deprived of and for any expenses incurred by the victim as a result of the discriminatory practice; and
(d) that the person compensate the victim, as the Tribunal may consider proper, for any or all additional cost of obtaining alternative goods, services, facilities or accommodation and for any expenses incurred by the victim as a result of the discriminatory practice.
Special compensation
(3) In addition to any order that the Tribunal may make pursuant to subsection (2), if the Tribunal finds that
(a) a person is engaging or has engaged in a discriminatory practice wilfully or recklessly, or
(b) the victim of the discriminatory practice has suffered in respect of feelings or self-respect as a result of the practice, the Tribunal may order the person to pay such compensation to the victim, not exceeding five thousand dollars, as the Tribunal may determine.
Order or recommendation to be made to avoid undue hardship
(4) If, at the conclusion of its inquiry into a complaint regarding discrimination based on a disability, the Tribunal finds that the complaint is substantiated but that the premises or facilities of the person found to be engaging or to have engaged in the discriminatory practice require adaptation to meet the needs of a person arising from such a disability, the Tribunal shall
(a) make such order pursuant to this section for that adaptation as it considers appropriate and as it is satisfied will not occasion costs or business inconvenience constituting undue hardship, or
(b) if the Tribunal considers that no such order can be made, make such recommendations as it considers appropriate, and, in the event of such finding, the Tribunal shall not make an order unless required by this subsection. [1976-77, c.33, s.41; 1980-81-82-83, c.143, s.20.]

Limitation of order
54. (1) Where a Tribunal finds that a complaint related to a discriminatory practice described in section 13 is substantiated, it may make only an order referred to in paragraph 53(2)(a).
Idem
(2) No order under subsection 53(2) may contain a term
(a) requiring the removal of an individual from a position if that individual accepted employment in that position in good faith; or
(b) requiring the expulsion of an occupant from any premises or accommodation, if that occupant obtained such premises or accommodation in good faith. [1976-77, c.33, s.42.]

Appeals
55. Where a Tribunal that made a decision or order was composed of fewer than three members, the Commission, the complainant before the Tribunal or the person against whom the complaint was made may appeal the decision or order by serving a notice, in a manner and form prescribed by order of the Governor in Council, within thirty days after the decision or order appealed was pronounced, on all persons who received notice from the Tribunal under subsection 50(1). [1976-77, c.33, s.42.1.]

Establishment of Review Tribunal
56. (1) Where an appeal is made pursuant to section 55, the President of the Human Rights Tribunal Panel shall select three members from the Human Rights Tribunal Panel, other than the member or members of the Tribunal whose decision or order is being appealed from, to constitute a Review Tribunal to hear the appeal.
Constitution and powers
(2) Subject to this section, a Review Tribunal shall be constituted in the same manner as, and shall have all the powers of, a Tribunal appointed pursuant to section 49, and subsection 49(4) applies in respect of members of a Review Tribunal.
Grounds for appeal
(3) An appeal lies to a Review Tribunal against a decision or order of a Tribunal on any question of law or fact or mixed law and fact.
Hearing of appeal
(4) A Review Tribunal shall hear an appeal on the basis of the record of the Tribunal whose decision or order is appealed and of submissions of interested parties but the Review Tribunal may, if in its opinion it is essential in the interests of justice to do so, admit additional evidence or testimony.
Disposition of appeal
(5) A Review Tribunal may dispose of an appeal under section 55 by dismissing it, or by allowing it and rendering the decision or making the order that, in its opinion, the Tribunal appealed against should have rendered or made. [R.S., 1985, c.H-6, s.56; R.S., 1985, c.31 (1st Supp.), s.67.]

Enforcement of order
57. Any order of a Tribunal under subsection 53(2) or (3) or any order of a Review Tribunal under subsection 56(5) may, for the purpose of enforcement, be made an order of the Federal Court by following the usual practice and procedure or, in lieu thereof, by the Commission filing in the Registry of the Court a copy of the order certified to be a true copy, and thereupon that order becomes an order of the Court. [1976-77, c.33, s.43.]

Application respecting disclosure of information
58. (1) Where any investigator or Tribunal requires the disclosure of any information and a minister of the Crown or any other person interested objects to its disclosure, the Commission may apply to the Federal Court for a determination of the matter.
Certificate
(2) Where the Commission applies to the Federal Court pursuant to subsection (1) and the minister of the Crown or other person interested objects to the disclosure in accordance with sections 37 to 39 of the Canada Evidence Act, the matter shall be determined in accordance with the terms of those sections.
No certificate
(3) Where the Commission applies to the Federal Court pursuant to subsection (1) but the minister of the Crown or other person interested does not within ninety days thereafter object to the disclosure in accordance with sections 37 to 39 of the Canada Evidence Act, the Court may take such action as it deems appropriate. [1976-77, c.33, s.44; 1980-81-82-83, c.111, s.5, c.143, s.21.]

Intimidation or discrimination
59. No person shall threaten, intimidate or discriminate against an individual because that individual has made a complaint or given evidence or assisted in any way in respect of the initiation or prosecution of a complaint or other proceeding under this Part, or because that individual proposes to do so. [1976-77, c.33, s.45.]

Offences and Punishment

Offence
60. (1) Every person is guilty of an offence who
(a) fails to comply with the terms of any settlement of a complaint approved and certified under section 48;
(b) obstructs a Tribunal in carrying out its functions under this Part; or
(c) contravenes subsection 11(6) or 43(3) or section 59.
Punishment
(2) A person who is guilty of an offence under subsection (1) is liable on summary conviction
(a) if the accused is an employer, an employer association or an employee organization, to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand dollars; or
(b) in any other case, to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars.
Prosecution of employer association or employee organization
(3) A prosecution for an offence under this section may be brought against an employer association or employee organization and in the name of that association or organization and for the purpose of the prosecution that association or organization shall be deemed to be a person and any act or thing done or omitted by an officer or agent of that association or organization within the scope of that officer's or agent's authority to act on behalf of the association or organization shall be deemed to be an act or thing done or omitted by the association or organization.
Consent of Attorney General
(4) A prosecution for an offence under this section may not be instituted except by or with the consent of the Attorney General of Canada.
Definition of "employer association"
(5) For the purposes of this section, "employer association" means any organization of employers the purposes of which include the negotiation, on behalf of employers, of the terms and conditions of employment of employees. [1976-77, c.33, s.46.]

Reports

Annual report
61. (1) The Commission shall, within three months after December 31 in each year, transmit to the Minister of Justice a report on the activities of the Commission under this Part and Part II for that year including references to and comments on any matter referred to in paragraph 27(1)(e) or (g) that it considers appropriate.
Special reports
(2) The Commission may, at any time, transmit to the Minister of Justice a special report referring to and commenting on any matter within the scope of its powers, duties and functions where, in its opinion, the matter is of such urgency or importance that a report thereon should not be deferred until the time provided for transmission of its next annual report under subsection (1).
Tabling reports
(3) The Minister shall cause any report transmitted to the Minister pursuant to this section to be laid before each House of Parliament on any of the first fifteen days on which that House is sitting after the day the Minister receives it. [1976-77, c.33, s.47; 1980-81-82-83, c.143, s.22.]

Application

Limitation
62. (1) This Part and Parts I and II do not apply to or in respect of any superannuation or pension fund or plan established by an Act of Parliament enacted before March 1, 1978.
Review of Acts referred to in subsection (1)
(2) The Commission shall keep under review those Acts of Parliament enacted before March 1, 1978 by which any superannuation or pension fund or plan is established and, where the Commission deems it to be appropriate, it may include in a report mentioned in section 61 reference to and comment on any provision of any of those Acts that in its opinion is inconsistent with the principle described in section 2. [1976-77, c.33, s.48.]

Application in the Territories
63. Where a complaint under this Part relates to an act or omission that occurred in the Yukon Territory or the Northwest Territories, it may not be dealt with under this Part unless the act or omission could be the subject of a complaint under this Part had it occurred in a province. [1976-77, c.33, s.48.]

Canadian Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police
64. For the purposes of this Part and Parts I and II, members of the Canadian Forces and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police are deemed to be employed by the Crown. [1976-77, c.33, s.48.]

Acts of employees, etc.
65. (1) Subject to subsection (2), any act or omission committed by an officer, a director, an employee or an agent of any person, association or organization in the course of the employment of the officer, director, employee or agent shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be an act or omission committed by that person, association or organization.
Exculpation
(2) An act or omission shall not, by virtue of subsection (1), be deemed to be an act or omission committed by a person, association or organization if it is established that the person, association or organization did not consent to the commission of the act or omission and exercised all due diligence to prevent the act or omission from being committed and, subsequently, to mitigate or avoid the effect thereof. [1980-81-82-83, c.143, s.23.]

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