Talk at the Ontario Library Association

Session on Public Networks and Censorship

January 15, 1995

Prof. Jeffrey Shallit
University of Waterloo and co-founder, Electronic Frontier Canada
shallit@graceland.uwaterloo.ca




Good afternoon.  Thank you very much for the opportunity to speak to
the Ontario Library Association on the subject of public networks and
censorship.  I'd also like to thank Mike Ridley for inviting me.

1.  Librarians and Computers.

I had planned to start off with something sententious such as, ``We
stand today at an information delivery crossroads,'' but the truth is,
that we have already passed this crossroads and are heading into the
information age at very high speed.   The crossroads, I think, was
traversed back in 1989 -- when, for the first time, the number of
videotapes rented exceeded the number of books checked out of 
public libraries.

The old concept of the library, as we have known and loved it, is
dying.  Now I'm not saying that books will cease to be published, or
that traditional library concerns such as shelf space and book theft
will disappear tomorrow.  But I *am* saying that there is an enormous
flood of information and communication that is about to be unleashed,
that is already being unleashed, and that librarians and the principles
they have developed and fought hard for, are desperately needed in the
new world as ``information intermediaries''.

The librarians of yesterday were valued by the general public for,
among other things, their abilities to determine just *where* in that
intimidating building full of books, magazines, newspapers, and
scholarly journals the particular piece of desired information
resided.  The librarians of tomorrow will be equally valued, but now
much of the information lies in cyberspace.  Yesterday, the Reader's
Guide to Periodical Literature and Ulrich's; today, the Lexis/Nexis
search service; tomorrow ... ?

The librarians of yesterday were also known as guardians of
intellectual freedom and the freedom to read.  The principles of their
profession can be found in statements produced by such groups as the
American Library Association (for example, Library Bill of Rights, the
Freedom to Read Statement, and the Intellectual Freedom Statement); the
Canadian Library Association (Statement on Intellectual Freedom); and
the Canadian Association of Research Libraries.

Let's take a look at just one of those statements, the intellectual
freedom statement of the Canadian Library Association [15]:

	All persons in Canada have the fundamental right, as embodied
	in the nation's Bill of Rights and the Canadian Charter of
	Rights and Freedoms, to have access to all expressions of
	knowledge, creativity and intellectual activity, and to express
	their thoughts publicly...

	Libraries have a basic responsibility for the development and
	maintenance of intellectual freedom.

	It is the responsibility of libraries to guarantee and
	facilitate access to all expressions of knowledge and
	intellectual activity, including those which some some elements
	of society may consider to be unconventional, unpopular or
	unacceptable.  To this end, libraries shall acquire and make
	available the widest variety of materials...

	Libraries should resist all efforts to limit the exercise of
	these responsibilities while recognizing the right of criticism
	by individuals and groups...

I find those words very inspiring, and I hope you do, too.  The
question I would like to pose to you today is:  as the libraries of
yesterday are transformed into the libraries of tomorrow, will these
principles govern electronic communication technologies such as the
Internet?


2.  Shallit's Three Laws.

Before we begin discussion of fundamental freedoms on computer networks
and the challenges to those freedoms, I'd like to tell you about what I
modestly call Shallit's Three Laws of New Media.  Shallit's First Law
is the following:

	Every new medium of expression will be used for sex.

Now you might say that I'm overstating my case, but think about it for
a moment:  some of the very earliest sculptures we know about are
fertility symbols, such as the Venus of Laussel (c. 20,000 B.C.).  One
of the earliest books printed after Gutenberg invented the printing
press was Bocaccio's erotic classic, the Decameron.  Shortly after the
introduction of photography, there was a thriving trade in pornographic
pictures.  And some anthropologists have even claimed that speech
evolved so quickly in humans because it facilitated seduction!  And
this brings me to Shallit's Second Law:

	Every new medium of expression will come under attack, usually
	because of Shallit's First Law.

Before I get to Shallit's Third Law of New Media, I'd like to tell you
a story from a really terrific book, Carolyn Marvin's _When Old
Technologies Were New:  Thinking About Electric Communication in the
Late Nineteenth Century_.  Marvin's book is largely concerned with the
societal impact of the telegraph and telephone, and, as we will see,
neither was exempt from Shallit's Three Laws.

As Marvin observes

	``New forms of communication created unprecedented
	opportunities not only for courting and infidelity, but for
	romancing unacceptable persons outside one's own class, and
	even one's own race, in circumstances that went unobserved by
	the regular community.  The potential for illicit sexual
	behaviour had obvious and disquieting power to undermine
	accustomed centers of moral authority and social order.'' [7,
	p. 70]

Now here's that story I promised:  in the summer of 1886, in New
Jersey,

	``a `nice young man' from the city met `one of the rustic
	beauties of the place' and they fell in love.  They
	corresponded, and she invited him to visit.  One day a telegram
	appeared with news of his impending arrival.

		Somehow--nobody ever will know just how--fifteen
		minutes after the message clicked into the [telegraph]
		office every person in town knew that young Blake was
		coming to see Miss Trevette.  Every young lady of the
		town made up her mind to catch a glimpse of this rash
		young man who sent telegrams, and every man determined
		to be there to see that everything went smoothly.

	When young Blake alighted from his carriage...  an audience of
	499 villagers had gathered to watch.  They observed while he
	paid the driver, studied him as he asked directions to the
	young lady's house, and followed his progress up the hill.
	Panicked by the approaching procession, Miss Trevette sent word
	of her absence, halting the romance at a blow.'' [7, pp. 70-71]

An amusing story -- but with a cautionary moral.  Today's new
communications technology -- electronic mail -- does not yet enjoy any
of the legal or societal protections we associate with communication by
more traditional means.  While employers would think twice before
opening an employee's mail delivered by Canada Post, e-mail is another
matter.  For example, Nissan Corporation dismissed a man for
``inappropriate jokes and language'' found in his e-mail.  Epson, a
computer company, dismissed a woman after she reported on a co-worker
who was reading another employee's e-mail -- apparently with the
blessing of management. [8]

And this brings up Shallit's Third Law of New Media:

	Protection afforded for democratic rights and freedoms in
	traditional media will rarely be understood to apply to new
	media.

Shallit's Third Law can be rephrased as the fallacy of focusing on the
medium and not the message.  A good illustration is the regulation of
radio and television broadcasting.  We tolerate content restrictions on
television, for example, that would be intolerable if they were applied
to print media [9].    When asked why, most people cite the supposed
scarcity of the airwaves as a justification for government regulation
of content.  The truth is that this scarcity itself is a product of
government intervention.   The technology now exists to make possible
hundreds or even thousands of broadcast stations in any metropolitan
area.  You don't hear much about this, because broadcasters are
understandably less than enthusiastic about new competition, and the
CRTC doesn't wish to relinquish its control on content.  As Jonathan
Emord shows, in his excellent book _Freedom, Technology, and The First
Amendment_, regulations on broadcasting were historically enacted with
little understanding of the technology and its capabilities [3].


3.  Threats and Challenges to Freedom.

We see that traditional democratic freedoms, such as freedom of
expression and privacy, are under threat when these freedoms are
asserted electronically.

And make no mistake, there is indeed a threat.  One danger is that the
new medium will be regulated to death before it is firmly established.
For example, in November 1994, Reform MP Myron Thompson
issued a press release alleging ``highly pornographic, illegal stories
available on Internet ... that are reaching our children'' and saying,
``this smut must be stopped''.  (Shallit's Second Law again!)

Also, in a report recently presented to the Canadian Parliament, the
Justice Committee recommended changes to the legal definition of
``obscenity'' to include ``undue exploitation or glorification of
horror, cruelty, or violence''.  In addition to cards and games, the
report names ``music, videos, comics, posters, and computer bulletin
boards'' as forms of communication that need to be controlled by the
government.  Communication that falls within this expanded definition
and has ``no redeeming cultural or social value'' would be prohibited.
The Internet is at risk, but books are safe ... at least for the time
being.

One reason for this difference in legal protection is that the print
medium has existed for more than five hundred years, and libraries have
existed for thousands of years.  During that time, librarians have
earned a good reputation for their craft, and have developed
intellectual freedom principles that are well-respected.  In contrast,
electronic computers have existed for barely fifty years, and computer
networks for barely twenty years.  Computer system administrators have
their own conferences and their own journals, but to my knowledge, they
have no statement of duties, responsibilities, or ethics even remotely
like the ALA's _Intellectual Freedom Manual_ [2].

Within the next ten years, I predict that the power of many computer
system administrators to regulate content on the machines they
administer will wane.   They will still be needed to help plan
day-to-day use, install new software, and fix bugs, but the
responsibility for such public forums such as Usenet News, etc., will
move to people trained in principles of acquisition and intellectual
freedom.

It may be that in the near future, the sheer volume of information flow
will make selection much more necessary than it is today.  When this
happens, shouldn't the decisions on what electronic materials to
subscribe to be based on the acquisition principles that librarians
have worked so hard to enunciate?  I hope so.


4.  Censorship Incidents.

As I pointed out, freedom of expression is at risk on the Internet.  I
think it's worthwhile to make this concrete by examining some
censorship incidents in detail.  Since I am most familiar with one
Canadian institution, the University of Waterloo, I will focus on that
university.

First, a little background.  Due primarily to historical accident,
universities are currently one of the principal locations where people
have free and unlimited access to the Internet, one part of the
so-called Information Highway.  The Internet is also one of the
principal places where Usenet news may be accessed.

Usenet consists of thousands of bulletin boards called ``newsgroups'',
on a variety of topics -- a kind of shared electronic mailbox.  Users
may read messages that have been posted on a particular topic, reply to
those messages (by sending electronic mail directly to the poster), or
``follow-up'' (post a reply to the newsgroup itself).  Usenet has
existed for about fifteen years, and readership estimates for some
newsgroups are in the millions or hundreds of thousands.

Usenet censorship can take place in a variety of ways, some more subtle
than others.  For example, it is possible for a local system
administrator to expurgate a news feed, so that only certain newsgroups
get through, and others are blocked.  When this is done, the user is
typically not informed.  It is also possible to block certain postings
locally from certain newsgroups, as has recently been done at the
University of Kentucky [6].  Finally, messages do not stay forever on
the bulletin boards they are posted to:  something called an ``expire
time'' governs how long they are available to the public.  By
differentially setting the expire times, it is possible to control
locally which newsgroups actually get read.

The first censorship incident at Waterloo took place in 1988.  Brad
Templeton, a UW alumnus and operator of a Waterloo-area 
computer company, moderated a newsgroup called rec.humor.funny,
a bulletin board devoted to jokes.  People from all over the world
sent him jokes; he chose the best ones, and posted them to the Internet.
When an ethnic joke offended a student at MIT, he complained to the
local newspaper, the Kitchener-Waterloo Record, and the Waterloo
administration responded by banning the newsgroup.  Ironically, after
the ban, compilations of the jokes from the newsgroup could still be
found for sale in Waterloo's own bookstore.  (Shallit's Third Law!)

More recently, the University administration discovered that some of
those thousands of newsgroups dealt with sex.  In today's climate --
as Trent University professor John Fekete calls it, an atmosphere of
``moral panic'' [4] -- such a thing has become unacceptable.

To give you some idea of what we're dealing with, here are some of the
newsgroups you can find on the Internet:

	alt.sex.bestiality
	alt.sex.bondage
	alt.sex.stories
	alt.sex.stories.d      [d = discussion]
	alt.tasteless

	rec.arts.erotica
	alt.sex.anal
	alt.sex.breast
	alt.sex.exhibitionism
	alt.sex.fetish.feet
	alt.sex.fetish.tickling
	alt.sex.intergen
	alt.sex.masturbation
	alt.sex.pedophilia
	alt.sex.safe
	alt.sex.services
	alt.sex.pictures
	alt.sex.spanking
	alt.binaries.pictures.erotica
	alt.binaries.pictures.erotica.fetish
	alt.binaries.pictures.tasteless
	alt.binaries.multimedia.erotica
	ont.personals.whips.and.rubber.chickens

For reasons known only to that arcane bureaucracy known as a University
administration, all these newsgroups are currently available at the
University of Waterloo, except for the first five.  I should point out
that all five groups are groups in which text, not pictures, is
primarily distributed.  The newsgroups in which pictures are
distributed are not yet banned at Waterloo.

How did this censorship happen at Waterloo and other Ontario
universities, and why is it being tolerated?  I believe (although I
cannot prove it) that it started with this September 1992 memo from
Bernard Shapiro, Deputy Minister for Colleges and Universities from the
Ontario Ministry of Education [19]:

	It has recently come to my attention that computer systems at
	Ontario's colleges and universities, normally used for the
	exchange of information between academics and scientific
	researchers, may be providing access to pornographic and/or
	racist material through international computer networks.

	It is the ministry's position that publicly-funded
	postsecondary institutions in Ontario should have appropriate
	policies and procedures in place to discourage the use of their
	computing systems for purposes of accessing or sending racist
	or pornographic materials.  Furthermore, offensive material
	should be removed when it is identified, and appropriate
	sanctions should be in place to deal with offences....

	...I do not believe that publicly-funded institutions should
	be seen to support either access to, or distribution of
	offensive material...

I find this memo bizarre for a number of reasons.  First of all, it
exhibits no comprehension of the current purpose or use of the
Internet.  The Internet is not simply used for the ``exchange of
information between academics and scientific researchers''.

Second, the memo exhibits the fallacy of ``the medium, not the
message''.  Pornography -- a word that is often used pejoratively, but
should not be -- just means material that is intended to cause an
erotic response in the viewer.  Pornography is not, per se, illegal in
Canada.  Many pornographic materials in the print medium are freely
available in many Ontario libraries.  For example, the University of
Waterloo library carries a subscription to _Playboy_, and the University
of Waterloo bookstore carries a book called _Women's Erotic Dreams_ [16].
Where is the concern and outrage over these materials?

Third, the memo asks for the suppression of *offensive materials* at
Ontario universities.  I was under the impression (in Clark Kerr's
words) that the purpose of a University was to make students safe for
ideas, not to make ideas safe for students.  If you haven't been
offended by *some* idea put forward at a university, then you haven't
been paying attention.  Again, my university contains books in its
library that are patently offensive to many, including _The Protocols
of the Learned Elders of Zion_, Bret Easton Ellis' _American Psycho_,
and Arthur Butz's _The Hoax of the Twentieth Century_, a book that
claims that the Holocaust is a massive Jewish hoax.  Butz's book is
banned from importation into Canada, but it is nevertheless freely
available in the Waterloo library.

It was not long after the Shapiro memo that action began to happen at
Ontario universities.  At Waterloo, the University Ethics Committee was
empowered to investigate the Internet and decide what material might
possibly Canadian obscenity laws.  In February, 1994, based on an
opinion from the Ethics Committee, the University administration banned
the five newsgroups previously listed.  Here is part of the memo from
the President of the University, James Downey [17]:

	Last fall I became aware that certain newsgroups on the
	Internet carried material which was almost certainly obscene
	and therefore contrary to the Criminal Code.  Advice from the
	University solicitor was unequivocal: under the Criminal Code
	it is an offence for anyone to publish or distribute obscene
	material, and the University is running a risk of prosecution
	if it knowingly receives and distributes obscene material. In
	these circumstances I felt the University had to act to protect
	itself...

	I am aware, of course, that this is a sensitive area: there
	is no precise and agreed-on measurement of where on the scale
	of human taste pornography begins...

	I am now authorizing implementation of the following process:

	Complaints concerning newsgroups which contain material
	considered to be obscene are to be referred to the Ethics
	Committee.  The Ethics Committee, with advice from legal
	counsel as appropriate, will make a recommendation to the
	Vice-President, Academic & Provost for the removal of any
	newsgroups it judges to be carrying obscene material...

This memo also troubles me.  First, the muddled conflation
of "pornography" with "obscenity".  Again, pornography is
not illegal in Canada -- only certain kinds of pornography are
illegal.  Second, a quick glance at the Criminal Code informs you that
one cannot be convicted under obscenity law if "the public good was
served by the acts" [18].  Surely guaranteeing free expression at a
university is a case of the public good.  Third, notice that the
stated goal is simply to avoid legal liability.  This would be
a reasonable objective for a business or corporation, but not for
a university, whose hallmark is the guarantee of freedom of expression.

Finally, obscenity law is traditionally among the most vexing and
difficult to interpret of all the criminal laws, even with the recent
*Butler* decision to give guidance.  As Ontario Judge Stephen Borins
once remarked, ``Judge or jurors lacking experience in the field of
pornography and the attitudes of others toward it face a substantial
challenge in making the findings demanded by the law.'' [14]

Because of this difficulty, the American Library Association offered
the following interpretation of its Challenged Materials policy [2]:

	Particularly when sexually explicit materials are the object of
	censorship efforts, librarians and boards of trustees are often
	unaware of the legal procedures required to effect the removal
	of such items.  Many attorneys, even when employed by state and
	local governing bodies, are not aware of the procedures to
	determine whether or not a work is obscene under the law.
	According to U.S. Supreme Court decisions, a work is not
	obscene until found to be so by a court of law, and only after
	an adversary hearing to determine the question of obscenity.
	Until a work is specifically found to be unprotected by the
	First Amendment, the title remains a legal library acquisition
	and need not be removed.

Although this policy is written for the United States, its principles
are equally valid in Canada.  Material in Canada is not obscene until
declared so by a court; until then it enjoys the protection of the
Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

This point was driven home by Canadian Supreme Court Justice John
Sopinka, in a November 26 1994 speech at the University of Waterloo.  Mr.
Justice Sopinka, author of the *Butler* decision, said:

	``Difficult issues also arise in the context of universities
	which take action to ban certain communications found to be
	offensive and undesirable. First, one must ask whether it is
	not preferable to permit the expression and allow the criminal
	or civil law to deal with the individual who publishes obscene,
	defamatory or hateful messages rather than prevent speech
	before it can be expressed.  Otherwise, individuals may be
	putting themselves in the positions of courts to determine what
	is obscene and what is acceptable.'' [10]

Isn't this precisely what happened at Waterloo?  No Internet newsgroup
or message has ever been declared obscene by a court of law.
Nevertheless, five newsgroups were banned from the campus.

There is an interesting historical parallel.  Back in 1961, four copies
of Henry Miller's _Tropic of Cancer_  were acquired from Grove Press by
the Toronto Public Library.  The Department of National Revenue, having
declared the book obscene and unfit for importation into Canada,
demanded that the Toronto Public Library hand over all copies of the
book.

But chief librarian Henry C. Campbell refused. [11]  As he pointed out,
no Canadian court had declared the book obscene.  The Toronto Star
editorialized, ``If the authorities deem _Tropic of Cancer_
pornographic, they should test that belief in court...  Censorship
guided by open court hearings, even on the basis of imperfect law, is
preferable to any attempt at censorship by official decree.'' [12]

Unfortunately, Campbell's principled refusal to turn the book over to
the censors at National Revenue was later overruled by Toronto Public
Library Board Chair W. Harold Male.  But the inner workings of the
censorious mind may be judged by the following:  Male huffed that ``any
self-respecting public library shouldn't have it on its shelves'', and
then was forced to admit that he had never even read the Miller novel.
[13]

The sad conclusion:  librarians understand the principles of
intellectual freedom better than some university administrators.


4.  A Simple Principle.

We have seen that, true to Shallit's Third Law, the current public
perception is that communication on the Internet does not merit
protection under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

In the meantime, what are we to do?  One possibility is to establish
and debate fundamental principles on which policy can be based.  To
that end, I would like to bring your attention to a principle of
intellectual freedom for electronic bulletin boards, as enunciated by
Carl Kadie.

     The principles of intellectual freedom developed by libraries
     should be applied to the administration of information material on
     computers. [5]

Let us try to apply this principle to two specific cases, and see what
results.

First, the case of access to the Internet by minors.  As we have seen,
people like Reform MP Myron Thomson are worried that children might
gain access to pornographic material.  Now, as I have pointed out, many
public and university libraries in Canada already contain pornographic
materials.  For example, the Cambridge Public Library purchased two
copies of Madonna's recent book, _Sex_.  Following Kadie's principle,
we must ask, what special actions have been taken by librarians to
restrict access by minors to this kind of pornography?

The answer is, nothing.  For example, the American Library Association
has a policy on access to library material by minors that reads, in
part,

	``Library policies and procedures which effectively deny minors
	equal access to all library resources available to other users
	violate the LIBRARY BILL OF RIGHTS.  The American Library
	Association opposes all attempts to restrict access to library
	services, materials, and facilities based on the age of library
	users...

	``Every restriction on access to, and use of, library
	resources, based solely on  the chronological age, educational
	level, or legal emancipation of users violates Article V...

	``The selection and development of library resources should not
	be diluted because of minors having the same access to library
	resources as adult users.  Institutional self-censorship
	diminishes the credibility of the library in the community, and
	restricts access for all library users.'' [1]

Although this is an American policy, it is generally adhered to by
Ontario libraries.  Most Ontario public libraries, including the
Cambridge Public Library, have ended their two-tier library card system
and now only offer a single library card.  Madonna's _Sex_ is now
freely available to any child with a library card in Cambridge (but
they'll have to wait in line to see it, since there is currently a
waiting list of 100 people).  If parents are worried about the kinds of
materials their child might borrow, they are free to refuse permission
for their child to obtain a library card.  Ontario librarians recognize
the right of parents to control their children's reading, but they
refuse to act in loco parentis.

In the same way, schools and libraries that provide Internet access
should refuse to provide a two-tier service in which some newsgroups
are censored or suppressed for children.  Should parents worry about
the kinds of material their children might encounter on the Internet,
they are free to deny access entirely for their children; for example,
by not telling them the password.

Let us now examine another problem, that of requesting new newsgroups.
In some systems, users are forced to make their request for new
newsgroups in public -- at the University of Waterloo, for example,
some newsgroups are automatically subscribed to, but as of this writing
others must be requested by posting to a newsgroup called uw.newsgroups.
The result is that some newsgroups -- particularly those dealing with
sexual topics -- may end up not being subscribed to because users are 
too embarrassed to make their request in front of everyone.

If we apply the intellectual freedom principles enunciated by
libraries, however, we see that some other method for requesting
newsgroups should be provided.  For example, Article III of the ALA's
``Librarian's Code of Ethics'' states [2]

	Librarians must protect each user's right to privacy with
	respect to information sought or received and materials
	consulted, borrowed, or acquired.

I believe that the principles librarians have developed for traditional
media are a good basis for the protection of the new electronic media.


6.  Why EFC?

      The Internet and related communications technologies are going to
change the way we communicate and research in the 21st century.  Rules
will be needed to make sure that everyone has a chance to participate,
and to prevent abuse of the technology.  But those rules should be made
with careful thought, by people informed about the possibilities,
limitations, and dangers of the technology.

     It is with this goal in mind that the Electronic Frontier
Foundation was founded in the United States in July 1990.  But until
recently, there was no similar organization in Canada.

     Professor David Jones (then of McGill University and now of
McMaster University) and I founded Electronic Frontier Canada in
January 1994.  Here is our raison d'etre (based on a similar statement
from the Electronic Frontier Foundation):

	Electronic Frontier Canada (EFC) was founded to ensure that the
	principles embodied in the Canadian Charter of Rights and
	Freedoms are protected as new computing, communications, and
	information technologies emerge.

	EFC is working to shape Canada's computing and communications
	infrastructure and the policies that govern it, in order to
	maintain privacy, freedom of speech, and other democratic
	values.  Our work focuses on the establishment of:

	* clear institutional policies and new laws that guarantee
	citizens' basic rights and freedoms on the electronic frontier;

	* a policy of common carriage requirements for all network
	providers so that all forms of speech and expression, no matter
	how controversial, will be carried without discrimination;

	* a diverse electronic community that enables all citizens to
	have a voice in the information age.

I hope that EFC will become a voice for reason and education as the
electronic frontier becomes more civilized.  And I also hope that
librarians and their understanding of intellectual freedom principles
will be at the forefront of the civilizing process.  We need you.

Thank you.

			 References


[1] American Library Association, ``Free Access to Libraries for
Minors:  An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights'', July 3
1991.  (Available by gopher or anonymous ftp to gopher.eff.org.)

[2] American Library Association, _Intellectual Freedom Manual_, 3rd
edition, 1989.  (Sections also available by gopher or anonymous ftp to
gopher.eff.org.)

[3] Jonathan Emord, _Freedom, Technology, and the First Amendment_,
Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1991.

[4] John Fekete, _Moral Panic:  Biopolitics Rising_, Robert Davies
Publishing, 1994.

[5] Carl Kadie, ``Content: The Academic Freedom Model'', paper
delivered at the _Third Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy_,
Burlingame, California, March 1993.  Full text available at
ftp://ftp.eff.org/pub/CAF/statements/cfp93.kadie .

[6] Carl Kadie, ``Applying library intellectual freedom principles to
public and academic computers'', paper delivered at the _Fourth
Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy_, March 1994.
Full text available at http://www.eff.org/CAF/cfp94.kadie.html .

[7] Carolyn Marvin, _When Old Technologies Were New:  Thinking About
Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century_, Oxford
University Press, 1988.

[8] Corey L. Nelson and Bonnie Brown, ``Is e-mail private or public?",
_Computerworld_, June 27 1994, pp. 135--137.

[9] Ithiel de Sola Pool, _Technologies of Freedom_, Belknap Press of
Harvard University Press, 1983.

[10] John Sopinka, ``Freedom of speech and privacy in the information
age'', text of speech delivered at the University of Waterloo, November
26 1994.  Text available at
gopher://insight.mcmaster.ca/00/org/efc/doc/sfsp/sopinka .

[11] ``Librarian refuses to give banned novel to customs'', _Toronto
Globe & Mail_, October 30 1961, p. 5.

[12] ``Censorship by decree'', _Toronto Star_, October 31 1961, p. 6.

[13] ``Banned book'', _Toronto Globe & Mail_, November 27 1961, p. 6.

[14] Quoted in Lynn King, ``Censorship and law reform'' in _Women
Against Censorship_, Varda Burstyn, ed., Douglas & McIntyre, 1985, p.
86.

[15] Canadian Library Association, Intellectual Freedom Statement.  Full
text available at
gopher://insight.mcmaster.ca/00/org/efc/library/library-cla-policy .

[16] Celeste T. Paul, _Women's Erotic Dreams (and What They Mean)_,
Grafton Books, London, 1988.

[17] Memo from University of Waterloo President James Downey,
January 31 1994.  Full text available at 
gopher://insight.mcmaster.ca/00/org/efc/univ/waterloo/uw.memo.netnews.31jan94 .

[18] Criminal Code of Canada, Section 163 (3).  Full text
available from http://insight.mcmaster.ca/org/efc/pages/law/cc/cc.163.html .

[19] Memo from Bernard Shapiro, September 1992.  Full text available from
gopher://insight.mcmaster.ca:70/00/org/efc/univ/ontario.univ-ministry.memo .